The US National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) presented US President Joe Biden with an image of the galaxy cluster SMACS 0723 at a distance of 4.6 billion light-years, taken from the James Webb Space Telescope.
The deepest image of the early universe from the James Webb Space Telescope:
This is the first full-fledged scientific image obtained by “James Webb Space Telescope”. In the image, you can see a cluster of galaxies as it was 4.6 billion years ago (in other words, the light from it went to us about 4.6 billion years), as well as the bright stars of the Milky Way (they show rays in the image, and there are no ray galaxies). A full-size version of the image is presented on the website of the space infrared observatory. It is noted that this is the deepest and clearest infrared image of the early Universe to date. Its age is 13 billion years.
The image shows how the massive galaxy cluster SMACS 0723 causes gravitational lensing ( photon path distortion by gravity ) of light from a distant galaxy from the early universe. Because of this phenomenon, the brightness seems stronger to the observer, while some of the galaxies seem to be bent. Objects that are closer are not curved, but due to their mass, they bend and brighten the light of objects that are behind them. Younger foreground galaxies appear as bright circles, while older galaxies appear as reddish arcs.
It shows the galaxy cluster SMACS 0723, which acts as a gravitational lens, bending light from more distant galaxies in a cosmic magnification effect. The main Webb scanner NIRCam, which operates in the near-infrared wavelength spectrum, has captured these faint background galaxies. This is because light from the early universe was stretched out by the time it reached us.
Fantastic galaxies on galaxies, on galaxies:
” Fantastic galaxies on galaxies, on galaxies,” Jonathan Lunin, chair of the department of astronomy at Cornell University, told AFP, rejoicing along with the rest of the global astronomical community.
” Despite not being the farthest Webb can see, this is the deepest image ever taken and shows the power of this remarkable telescope: tremendous sensitivity, wide wavelength range, and stunning image clarity,” enthuses Avi Loeb, professor of astronomy at Harvard. He explained that the reddish arcs are ancient galaxies, while the bright circles and ellipses belong to the younger foreground galaxy cluster.
The next set of images will be published soon. Scientists promise to reveal details about the atmosphere of distant planets, “stellar nurseries” where stars form, trapped galaxies, and a cloud of gas around a dying star.
The 2014 discovery of the gas giant planet WASP-96 b was subjected to spectroscopy, or the study of light, by the telescope. WASP-96 b is nearly half the mass of Jupiter and is 1,150 light-years away from Earth. It orbits its star in about 3.4 days.
The second Lagrange point is the location where the Webb spacecraft, which was launched from French Guiana in December on an Ariane 5 rocket, orbits the sun at a distance of 1.6 million kilometers from Earth. Here it uses the least amount of fuel necessary to change course and maintains a stable location in relation to the Earth and the Sun. For 20 years of operation, there should be adequate fuel.
Cost of the project:
The project is expected to cost $10 billion in total, making it one of the most expensive scientific platforms ever built, on par with the CERN Large Hadron Collider. 18 gold-plated pieces make up the primary Webb mirror, which is more than 6.5 meters wide. The maximum amount of fluctuation while operating is 17 millionths of a millimeter.
“James Webb Space Telescope ” took this image with a NIRCam (Near-Infrared Camera). This instrument focused the light from the galaxies, stretching out over the time it traveled to us. The total exposure time for the image was 12.5 hours; for Hubble, for example, imaging would take weeks. This is the first image from the first series of scientific data obtained by the observatory. It is reported that several more images will be published on the evening of July 12.
In cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency, and others, NASA constructed the James Webb Station (CSA). The new flagship observatory for NASA took 25 years to complete. The Hubble Space Telescope, which was launched in 1990, will be replaced by this orbiting infrared observatory. Thanks to the adoption of the most recent light sensitivity technologies, the James Webb is in comparison 100 times more potent. The new telescope’s primary objective is to find the light coming from the first stars and galaxies to form after the Big Bang.
Using a massive Ariane 5 launch vehicle, the telescope was sent 1 million kilometers into space on December 25 from the Kourou launch site in French Guiana. All four scientific instruments were then calibrated and put to the test after the optical system had been adjusted for five months and the primary and secondary mirror segments’ positions had been adjusted.
The space observatory weighs 6.2 tonnes. The “James Webb” has a composite mirror that is composed of 18 hexagonal segments and measures 6.5 meters in diameter with 25 square meters of collecting surface. To put Hubble’s mirror in perspective, it is 2.4 meters long and has a 4.5-square-meter collecting surface.
The total cost of the project is estimated at $10 billion. The estimated life of the James Webb space telescope is 5-10 years.
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