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Best News About Black Holes: What Happens To Black Holes



"Black Holes"

Explosions, Mergers, And Wanderings: What Happens To Black Holes

"Black Holes"

Black Holes

Astrophysicist Sergey Popov on how black holes are born, live and travel through galaxies, and people try to study them

Astronomy is interesting because we cannot directly experiment with the objects of study. But thanks to the invention of new telescopes, and Astronomical satellites, we have a variety of data on many objects, including the most mysterious of them – black holes. This allows you to better understand how they are arranged, how they appeared and what happens to them in the Universe.

A black hole is a region inside space with gravity so strong that it sucks in everything around it, including light. RAS professor Sergei Popov explains that black holes do not have one clear definition, and even this is one of the options. If you ask different scientists – astrophysicists and physicists – they will approach the answer from different angles. There are encyclopedic dictionaries that fix definitions and give specific answers, but there is no single correct formulation.

Four Types Of Black Holes

All bodies bend space and time around them. The more compact the body, the more noticeable this effect. The compact is not just about size. A small body with a large mass will also be compact. Black holes are an extreme case. We can take anything: a cloud of gas or a neutron star, begin to compress them, and, in the end, any of these objects will turn into a black hole. Everything changes there. Information from inside cannot get outside. Therefore, black holes sometimes seem not so much interesting objects as mysterious. We don’t really know what’s going on inside.

Therefore, there are two approaches to the study of black holes. The first one is more physical: we are talking about the properties of black holes, including internal ones. Here, for the time being, we restrict ourselves to theoretical studies. The second is astrophysical. There are four main types of black holes in astrophysics.

The most famous are supermassive black holes. Every large galaxy has a central black hole. There are black holes with masses ranging from several thousand solar masses to tens of billions. There is such a black hole in the center of our galaxy.

The second popular type is stellar-mass black holes. Stars evolve: a thermonuclear reaction takes place in the depths, and light elements turn into heavy ones. But this synthesis ends sooner or later. An iron core is formed. And this iron core begins to collapse. If this collapse is not stopped, a black hole will form. Here, of course, we will not get any billions of solar masses, because we start from a stellar mass – this is 20, maybe 200 solar masses. The black hole will obviously be a little lighter because not all of the star’s matter will get inside.

Sometimes a separate type of black hole of intermediate masses is distinguished – something in between stars and supermassive black holes. So far, there is no understanding of how these objects arose. Maybe several massive stars merged with each other in a dense cluster, for a short time formed a star with a mass of, say, a thousand solar masses. And it didn’t collapse.

Finally, there are the so-called primordial black holes, which should form in the young universe. The beauty of such primordial black holes is that they appear before anything else – before stars and galaxies. And they can have very different masses: from quite large to very microscopic. These objects have a number of unique properties. I really want to find them, but so far a variety of attempts have not led to anything.

Therefore, in reality, we are dealing with supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes, and we also have good candidates for intermediate-mass black holes.

Observations of matter around a black hole

By definition, no signal can get out of the depths of the hole. The black hole itself is not visible, it has no surface, only the horizon. Therefore, when studying real black holes, supermassive or stellar-mass black holes, we, first of all, see the processes that occur around them. The main way to study is to observe the matter that heats up in the vicinity of a black hole.

Let’s consider the simplest example. There is a black hole at the center of the galaxy. There is always some gas in there, it is attracted to the black hole. If the gas falls evenly into the black hole, it will emit almost nothing, but if it orbited around a bit, then this movement will become more and more noticeable as the gas approaches the black hole.

And finally, a gravitational disk can form near the black hole – due to friction, the gas is heated to a high temperature. In supermassive black holes, we typically see optical and ultraviolet radiation from the disk, while in lighter stellar-mass black holes, we see X-rays. In this case, the source of matter is the second star.

Stars, especially massive ones, love to be born in pairs. Often a situation arises when matter from one star flows to another. This second object could be a compact object: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. Again, a disk is formed, and we see its radiation. Thus, the first good candidates for black holes were discovered, for example, the famous source Cygnus X-1.

But in the vast majority of binary systems, this overflow of matter is absent. It turns out that astronomers are looking under the lantern – where it is easier to find. We see those objects that themselves betray their presence with powerful radiation.

Star-Black Hole: Observations Of Binary Systems

When people generally understood that black holes could exist, a simple idea arose. Imagine once upon a time there were two stars. One turned into a black hole. But we keep seeing the second star. What do they do if they form a binary system when combined? They revolve around a common center of mass. Then it becomes important to fix the movement of the visible star – to get its spectrum and by the shift of the spectral lines, that is, by the Doppler effect, notice: the star either moves towards you, or moves away from you.

This is the rotation around the center of mass in a binary system. If you can prove that the second component is massive enough, has a mass greater than three solar masses, and is invisible, then it can only be a black hole. This idea was put forward in the early 1960s. But then it was not possible to open a single object, and only in the last few years articles began to appear,

Observations here are quite complex. Because at the same time it is necessary to prove that the second component is actually invisible, and not just very weak. This is quite difficult to do because the first star is usually the brightest one. Its light makes it difficult to see the second dim component. Then it is important to prove that the second object is light and that it is a black hole, and not a neutron star, white or red dwarf.

Until recently, all good candidates ended up being discarded. But this year, a paper finally appeared where, apparently, people actually saw such an inactive black hole in a binary system. It is very important to discover this because at the moment we do not understand very well which stars give rise to black holes and which give rise to neutron stars.

It is also very interesting to know what speed black holes acquire at birth. These data will help to understand how the collapse occurred. This is a very complex process that we are trying to simulate on computers, but so far it has not been possible to do this in small details. More precisely, it is obtained in many different ways. To choose the right one, we need to compare the results with real data.

The System Disintegrated: Observations of a Lonely Black Hole

Not all moving stars indicate the presence of a black hole nearby – the offset must be large enough. Until recently, it was not possible to get close to such stars. Fortunately, the European satellite Gaia is in orbit, the task of which is to measure the exact position of the stars. This gives us the ability to get statistics on black holes and should eventually lead to a much better understanding of how they are created.

If the binary system broke up, and the star exploded, then the situation is worse than with a black cat in a black room: a black hole flies by itself in black space. But it turns out that the general theory of relativity gives us the opportunity to learn about the presence of a black hole. This is possible due to the effect of gravitational lensing. Imagine that we are watching a star, and its brightness begins to increase symmetrically in all spectra, which means that some massive body flew between us and the star and warped space-time.

The problem is that the likelihood of this happening is small. If you want to take a beautiful photo, for example, an airplane against the background of the moon, then simply pointing the camera at the sky, you are unlikely to take such a beautiful picture. But the probability will increase if there is an airport near you and planes fly frequently. Accordingly, in order to

There are about 400 billion stars in the galaxy and several hundred million black holes. After many years of observations, candidates for events finally appeared, where we identify the presence of a single black hole, which did nothing, but simply flew, but accidentally amplified the light of a distant star and thereby gave itself away. This makes it possible to determine the mass of a black hole, which is important for studying how stars end their lives.

Neutron stars have a typical mass of one and a half to two solar masses. Black holes usually have seven to ten solar masses. There are very few objects in the middle of these masses. With the help of the Gaia satellite, which detected the effect of gravitational lensing, it was possible to detect a black hole that falls into this mass distribution gap. This is critical to understanding stellar evolution and ultimately brings us back to the question of which stars turn into black holes.

Observations of a system of two black holes

Now the most exotic astronomical observations are the search for gravitational wave bursts. This is the best way to study black holes in large numbers with accurate masses. Massive stars are mostly born in binary systems. There may be such a situation that both stars turned into black holes, and the system survived. Two black holes revolve around a common center of mass. They lose energy due to the emission of gravitational waves – this can be considered the absolute friction of the curvature of space. That is, energy is taken away from the binary system, and black holes approach each other.

The closer they come to each other, the more intense the process of emission of gravitational waves. As a result, two black holes merge, and a large amount of energy is released, but in a very exotic form – in the form of gravitational waves. Only in the 21st century were installations created that really made it possible to fix this phenomenon. In September 2015, the LIGO probes detected for the first time a gravitational wave burst from the merger of two black holes. Since then, 100 gravitational wave bursts have been observed.

Such observations allow us to determine another remarkable parameter – the black holes approach asymmetrically. One black hole may be more massive than another, and the direction of the axes of rotation and speed may not coincide. Therefore, gravitational waves will also be emitted asymmetrically – they carry away energy and momentum. But momentum must be maintained.

Therefore, when black holes merge, and gravitational waves carry away more momentum somewhere, and somewhere less, the black hole should start moving: fly to where fewer impulses have flown to compensate for everything. The question arises: how fast can a black hole move? It turns out that very fast – thousands of kilometers per second. Moreover, everything depends on the ratio of the masses of black holes and on how the axes of rotation were directed.

This effect of the gravitational wave rocket is very important. Physicists came up with it back in the 1960s, and then astrophysicists remembered it in the 1990s and realized that it can actually be observed. A speed of hundreds of thousands of kilometers per second, for example, allows a black hole to fly out of a galaxy and start wandering in intergalactic space. That is, it is not empty at all, in fact, a large number of black holes plow its expanses. For the first time, this was proved thanks to the processing of data from LIGO installations.

The black hole in our galaxy

Of course, the black hole would not fly away if it formed right next to the central black hole of its galaxy. In this region, right near any central black hole, stars rotate. There is also a black hole in the center of our galaxy – it is very small and light. But she has a strong effect on her inner circle. The sun does not revolve around the central black hole, it is controlled by the galaxy, and the stars that are near the black hole are controlled by it. This is interesting because we cannot see a black hole.

We have access to either the substance around, or objects. Stars revolve around the central black hole with some kind of orbital period. For a long time, the most famous star was the one that orbited a black hole in 15 years. That is, to get good information, you need to observe for a long time. Where are the stars which are even closer to the black hole? In the center of the galaxy, they are difficult to observe, since this region is heavily covered by dust.

But surveillance tools are becoming more sensitive, and so records are constantly being set. Stars are being discovered that are getting closer and closer to the black hole. A star was discovered that makes a revolution in 9-plus years. And finally, another record was set this year – scientists have found a star that makes an orbit around a black hole in just four years.

This is also very interesting because the closer we get to a black hole, the stronger all the effects of general relativity manifest themselves. But there is a limit: if the star gets too close to the black hole, then the tidal forces will simply tear it apart. An accretion disk appears around the black hole for a short time, and before that, the calm black hole becomes active – it begins to devour this matter.

Studying black holes is very difficult, but interesting. The last year has been rich in discoveries in this area. Summarizing what has been said, we are getting a lot of new information about black holes from various directions, and even about those that were very difficult to observe before.

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Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3 Brings Transformers to Battle Pass



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Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3 Brings Transformers to Battle Pass

Fortnite, the immensely popular battle royale game, never fails to surprise its millions of players worldwide. With the launch of Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3, the game has taken an exciting turn, introducing two thrilling elements: Transformers and the return of Raptors. This article delves into the details of these new additions to the Fortnite experience, exploring how they enhance gameplay and captivate players.

"Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3"

GameSpot: Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3

Transformers in the Battle Pass:

One of the major highlights of Chapter 4 Season 3 is the incorporation of the iconic Transformers franchise into the game’s Battle Pass. Players now have the opportunity to obtain and use Transformers-themed cosmetic items, including character skins, back bling, harvesting tools, and more. This collaboration between Fortnite and Transformers brings beloved Autobots and Decepticons to the game, allowing fans to showcase their favorite robots in the battle arena.

As players progress through the Battle Pass tiers, they unlock various Transformers-themed rewards. From the heroic Optimus Prime and the powerful Bumblebee to the notorious Megatron, the range of available character skins appeals to both Fortnite enthusiasts and Transformers aficionados. This crossover not only adds visual flair to the game but also allows players to embody these legendary characters as they battle it out for victory.

Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3: The Return of Raptors:

In addition to the Transformers extravaganza, Chapter 4 Season 3 marks the return of a fan-favorite element—Raptors. These prehistoric creatures have made a comeback, roaming the island and adding an element of danger and excitement to the gameplay. Players can encounter and tame Raptors, forming a bond with them as they explore the map and participate in battles.

Taming a Raptor offers several advantages in Fortnite. Raptors can be used as loyal companions, aiding players in combat scenarios. They possess unique abilities, such as the ability to track down nearby enemies or provide enhanced mobility. Players can also ride on the back of Raptors, allowing them to navigate the terrain swiftly and effectively. This reintroduction of Raptors injects a new layer of strategy and excitement into the game, encouraging players to adapt their gameplay tactics to utilize these formidable creatures to their advantage.

Impacts on Gameplay and Community:

"Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3"

GameSpot: Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3

The introduction of Transformers and the return of Raptors significantly impact the gameplay experience and the Fortnite community as a whole. The addition of beloved Transformers characters and cosmetic items enhances player immersion and personalization, providing a fresh visual appeal and allowing fans to express their individuality within the game. The inclusion of Transformers-themed challenges and rewards also promotes engagement and rewards players for their progress.

Moreover, the reappearance of the Raptors brings back nostalgia for veteran players who may have enjoyed their presence in previous seasons. It also introduces an element of surprise for newcomers, presenting them with unique opportunities to explore the island, form new strategies, and forge connections with these virtual companions. The excitement and speculation surrounding these new additions foster a sense of community and shared enthusiasm among Fortnite players.


Fortnite Chapter 4 Season 3 continues to captivate players with its innovative and exciting updates. The inclusion of Transformers in the Battle Pass and the return of Raptors offer players fresh and thrilling experiences within the game. The ability to don Transformers-themed cosmetic items and unlock beloved characters from the iconic franchise adds a new layer of personalization and fan engagement. Simultaneously, the return of Raptors injects unpredictability and strategic depth into the gameplay, encouraging players to adapt their tactics and embrace these prehistoric companions.

As Fortnite evolves and expands, these additions demonstrate the game’s commitment to delivering novel experiences and catering to the diverse interests of its player base. Whether players are thrilled to embody their favorite Transformers or eager to tame and ride Raptors, Chapter 4 Season 3 presents an exhilarating journey within the ever-evolving Fortnite universe.

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Trump Accused of Lying and Keeping Classified Documents Espionage



"Trump Accused of Lying and Keeping Classified Documents"

Federal Indictment Accuses Trump of Lying and Scheming to Keep Documents He Knew Were Classified

In a stunning development that has sent shockwaves through the political landscape, a federal indictment has been filed against former President Donald Trump, accusing him of lying and scheming to retain classified documents during his tenure in office.

"Trump Accused of Lying and Keeping Classified Documents"

The Hollywood Reporter: Trump Accused of Lying and Keeping Classified Documents

The allegations paint a damning picture of a leader willing to flout the law and undermine national security for personal gain. This article explores the details of the indictment and its potential implications for Trump’s legacy and the rule of law.

The Allegations:

According to the federal indictment, Trump knowingly and willfully lied about the classification status of certain documents, falsely claiming that they were unclassified and within his personal purview. In reality, the documents in question were highly sensitive and contained classified information vital to national security. By retaining these documents, Trump allegedly put the nation at risk and violated numerous federal laws and regulations.

The indictment further asserts that Trump engaged in a deliberate scheme to hide and conceal the classified documents from proper authorities. It alleges that he directed his staff to remove them from secure government systems and store them in private, unsecured locations, with the intent to control access to the information and avoid accountability. Such actions would be a clear violation of established protocols and procedures for handling classified information.

Legal Ramifications:

If convicted, Trump could face severe legal consequences, including imprisonment and hefty fines. Lying about the classification of documents and actively scheming to retain them could constitute offenses under the Espionage Act, which prohibits the unauthorized disclosure of classified information. Additionally, charges related to obstruction of justice and abuse of power may also come into play, as Trump’s actions appear to have been aimed at impeding investigations and undermining the integrity of the government.

Implications for National Security:

The indictment raises serious concerns about the potential impact on national security. Classified information is classified for a reason – it contains sensitive data that, if compromised, could endanger lives, compromise intelligence sources, and undermine vital operations. By knowingly retaining such information outside of authorized channels, Trump potentially exposed it to unauthorized access and misuse.

The alleged actions outlined in the indictment also reflect a dangerous disregard for established protocols and safeguards that are in place to protect national security. If those entrusted with the highest levels of authority can act with impunity and ignore the rules, it erodes public trust and weakens the foundations upon which our democratic institutions are built.

Political Fallout:

Beyond the legal ramifications, the indictment is likely to have far-reaching political consequences. Trump’s supporters may rally around him, dismissing the charges as politically motivated or part of a larger conspiracy to undermine his presidency. Conversely, his critics will view the indictment as further evidence of his disregard for the rule of law and his willingness to prioritize personal interests over the welfare of the nation.

The indictment could also impact Trump’s political ambitions, should he choose to run for office again. It will undoubtedly become a focal point in any future campaigns and may influence public opinion and voting patterns. The outcome of the legal proceedings will determine the weight of this indictment on Trump’s political future.


The federal indictment accusing Donald Trump of lying and scheming to retain classified documents presents a serious challenge to his legacy and the rule of law. The allegations, if proven true, reveal a former president who knowingly violated national security protocols and endangered the country’s well-being for personal gain.

The legal and political implications of the indictment are substantial, and the case will undoubtedly be watched closely by observers around the world. As the proceedings unfold, the nation waits to see how justice will be served and what lasting impact this indictment will have on the United States political landscape.

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Odisha Train Accident Updates and Aftermath



"Odisha Train Accident Updates and Aftermath"

Odisha Train Accident Updates: A Tragic Incident and its Aftermath

On a fateful day in Odisha, a train accident shook the nation, resulting in significant loss of life and widespread devastation. This tragic incident has raised concerns about railway safety and highlighted the need for preventive measures to ensure the well-being of passengers. In this article, we will provide an overview of the Odisha train accident and explore the latest updates regarding the incident.

"Odisha Train Accident Updates and Aftermath"

Odisha Train Accident Updates and Aftermath

The Odisha Train Accident:

On [Date], a train traveling from [Origin] to [Destination] in Odisha met with a disastrous accident. The train, carrying a significant number of passengers, derailed in the [Location] area, leading to a horrific chain of events. The precise cause of the accident is yet to be determined, but preliminary investigations suggest that it might be attributed to a faulty track or mechanical failure.

Casualties and Rescue Efforts:

The train accident resulted in a tragic loss of life and left numerous passengers injured. The exact number of casualties is still being verified, as rescue operations are ongoing. Upon receiving information about the accident, local authorities and railway personnel immediately mobilized resources for rescue and relief operations. Rescue teams, including medical personnel, were dispatched to the accident site to provide immediate assistance to the survivors.

Medical teams worked tirelessly to treat the injured and provide necessary medical aid. The injured passengers were quickly transported to nearby hospitals and medical facilities for further treatment. The local administration, along with railway authorities, coordinated their efforts to ensure timely and efficient rescue and relief operations.

Investigations and Accountability:

Following the Odisha train accident, investigations were initiated to determine the exact cause and to hold those responsible accountable. Railway authorities, along with experts from relevant fields, conducted thorough examinations of the accident site, the train, and the tracks. The investigation aims to identify any lapses in maintenance, safety protocols, or other factors that might have contributed to the accident.

Railway Safety Measures:

In the wake of the Odisha train accident, railway authorities have intensified their focus on enhancing safety measures. Regular track inspections and maintenance routines have been reinforced to identify and rectify any potential issues promptly. Additionally, technology-driven solutions, such as track monitoring systems and advanced signaling systems, are being explored to prevent similar accidents in the future.

The Indian Railways, which is one of the largest railway networks in the world, is constantly striving to improve safety standards. Lessons learned from such accidents are crucial in driving reforms and implementing robust safety protocols across the entire rail network.

Assistance to Victims and Their Families:

The government and railway authorities have extended their support to the victims and their families affected by the Odisha train accident. Compensation packages, including financial aid and medical assistance, have been announced for the victims and their kin. Special helplines and counseling services have also been set up to provide psychological support to those traumatized by the incident.


The Odisha train accident serves as a tragic reminder of the importance of maintaining and upgrading railway infrastructure and safety protocols. As the investigations progress, it is hoped that the causes behind the accident will be identified, and measures will be taken to prevent similar incidents in the future. The focus must remain on ensuring the safety and well-being of passengers, and efforts should be made to implement the lessons learned from such incidents to create a more secure and reliable railway system.

While the nation mourns the loss of innocent lives, it is imperative that authorities and stakeholders work together to prevent such accidents from occurring again. By prioritizing safety, investing in infrastructure, and employing advanced technologies, we can strive to make railway travel in Odisha and across the country safer for everyone involved.

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